XI. The Impact of ICE and Local Police Policies on Immigrants and the Community Print E-mail


Differing Immigration and Customs Enforcement by Region



Noncriminal arrests of immigrants for ICE deportation1 have increased more than criminal arrests in 2017. In 22 out of 25 ICE regional offices between January 20 and April 29, noncriminal arrests increased at a greater rate than the number of criminal arrests, compared to the same period last year.


This expanded focus on noncriminal unauthorized immigrants varies by ICE region. In the first 100 days of the Trump administration, the regional offices in Philadelphia, Atlanta, and Miami saw the biggest increases in the arrest of noncriminal immigrants compared to the same period in 2016, 529 percent, 460 percent, and 400 percent.2   Arrests of undocumented immigrants surged 40 percent compared to the previous fiscal year in the New York City area. Data show that the share of those swept up by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents, despite having no criminal record, doubled. In New Jersey, that share has gone from 25 percent to 40 percent.3  Nineteen of the 25 ICE regions recorded at least double the number of noncriminal arrests during this period.2  


In contrast, Los Angeles and San Francisco saw the smallest increase in noncriminal arrests during President Trump's first 100 days, 10% in LA and 15% in SF. In 2014, California passed the TRUST Act which limited cooperation between law enforcement agencies and ICE by prohibiting the exchange of information about or transfer into custody of individuals with minor criminal violations.2








1.  Arulanantham, Ahilan T.  Director of Advocacy and Legal Director at the ACLU of Southern California.  “Detained Immigrants Aren’t Awaiting Deportation.  They’re Awaiting Justice.”  Justice Not Jails:  A Program of the Interfaith Movement for Human Integrity, November 6, 2016.     http://justicenotjails.org/immigrant-detainees/


2.  Chishti, Muzaffar and Bolter, Jessica.  "The Trump Administration at Six Months:  A Sea Change in Immigration Enforcement."  Migration Policy Institute, Police Beat, July 19, 2017.


3.  "Think Trump's mass deportation force is sweeping up only 'bad hombres'?  Think again."  By Gabe Ortiz, Daily Kos, December 6, 2017.












ICE Increases Housing Foreclosures



A study by Jacob Rugh, a sociologist at Brigham Young University, and Matthew Hall, a demography professor at Cornell University, revealed that counties across the country that collaborated with ICE in what became a large-scale deportation sweep experienced a surge in foreclosures of homes owned by Hispanics. Their findings reveal the spiraling and often unseen effects of mass deportations. Earlier studies of home foreclosures suggested that black and Hispanic families were both victimized by subprime lending schemes. The fact that Hispanic households lost a higher percent of homes to foreclosure than blacks indicates something more caused the foreclosure rates. Rugh and Hall point out that Cuban and Puerto Rican immigrants, who were not subject to deportation, did not experience high foreclosure rates.1


By looking at the timing of cooperation between ICE and local police, Rugh and Hall observed no difference in counties studied in foreclosure rates before some of the counties had agreed to cooperate with ICE. However, once counties signed on to help ICE with deportation efforts, those counties foreclosure rates increased to 68% higher than counties which did not cooperate with ICE. They noted that about a third of undocumented immigrants in those counties lived in the homes of legal residents, which enabled the owners to afford their homes. Once the undocumented immigrants were deported, home owners were no longer able to meet their housing payments. "By deporting undocumented immigrants, in effect, the country may be making it harder for Hispanics to realize the American dream."1



deporting the american dream




Professor Hall points out that a single deportation can damage the surrounding community. Foreclosures often result in vacant or abandoned houses, leading to crime and civic disengagement reducing the value of homes in the neighborhood. Cities and towns lose out on tax revenue from the foreclosed homes.


So much of immigration policy is unfortunately driven by emotional appeal and not by cost-benefit analysis or any kind of empirical assessment,” Hall said. “My concern is that as efforts to deport people are ramped up, we do not lose sight of how deportations not only destroy families – many of whom are U.S. citizens – but also harm communities and local economies.”2


The National Association of Hispanice Real Estate Professionals (NAHREP) cautions that prolonged stagnation of the housing market could develop in areas with high immigration enforcement policies and could turn the housing market and the economy back to 2008 levels.3 In 2008, for example, when Brooklyn Park sought federal funds for neighborhood stabilization, 983 homes had gone into foreclosure.4 The two immigrant groups living in Brooklyn Park that have the highest potential to be arrested by ICE for deportation are:


Mexican (and Latino) 6.6 % 5,133 Brooklyn Park5


About 2400 Mexican and Latino people in Brooklyn Park are unauthorized.5


Estimate of Mexican Foreign Born Home Ownership = 2400 foreign born X 62%6 = 1488 breadwinners X 42% home ownership = 626


Liberian Potential Home Foreclosures


According to Representative Keith Ellison, 1000 Liberians have Deferred Enforced Departure extensions. We estimate that half of them live in Brooklyn Park.8


500 X 62%9 = 310 breadwinners X 40% homeownership (based on 2% higher poverty than Mexican) = 124 homeownership.


Total Potential Foreclosures = 626 Mexican + 124 Liberian = 750. These potential foreclosures would probably occur over a few years.






1.  Badger, Emily.  “Why More Mass Deportations Would Be Bad for the Housing Market.”  New York Times, December 16, 2016.




2.  Kelley, Susan.  “When wage earners are deported, Latinos lose their homes.”
Cornell Chronicle, December 8, 2016.




3.  “Deportation could lead to more foreclosures.”  




4.  Hurley, Amanda Kolson.  "Why Brooklyn Park, Minnesota Is the New Face of Suburbia.  City Lab, February 11, 2016.




5.  Mathema, Silva.  "State by State Estimates of the Family Members of Unauthorized Immigrants."  Center for American Progress, March 16, 2017






6.  Edwards, Ryan and Ortega, Francesc.  “The Economic Impacts of Removing Unauthorized Immigrant Workers:  An Industry- and State-Level Analysis.”  Center for American Progress, September 21, 2016.



7.  Powell, Benjamin.  "The Law of Unintended Consequences:  Georgia's Law Backfires."  Forbes, May 17, 2012.







Increased Deportation of Noncitizens with Final Removal Orders



The Trump administration's priority on deporting noncitizens with final orders of removal is one of the big changes in ICE policies.2 Previously only final orders issued after December 2013 were a high priority for enforcement. Under the Obama administration, unauthorized immigrants with final orders were permitted to stay with a periodic checkin with ICE if they had significant ties in the U.S. such as children who were citizens or businesses. This focus on removal orders has led to an increase in noncitizens being arrested at their checkins with ICE.


Ed Pilkington, Chief Reporter for the Guardian US, notes that Trump says that he intends to deport gangsters, violent criminals, and drug dealers who threaten public safety and undermine national security, but a different pattern is developing on the ground. Pilkington notes that over 90% of removal proceedings during the first two months of the Trump Administration involved people picked up with no crime other than to be living in the U.S. without permission.2 Pilkington relates the stories of four of these American families torn apart by Trump's immigrant crackdown.





1.  Chishti, Muzaffar and Bolter, Jessica.  "The Trump Administration at Six Months:  A Sea Change in Immigration Enforcement."  Migration Policy Institute, Police Beat, July 19, 2017.


2.  Pilkington, Ed.  “Torn Apart:  the American families hit by Trump’s immigration crackdown.”  April 21, 2017.











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